Incorporation of one or two o-carborane moieties at the backbone of the pyrazole ring was achieved by lithiation and nucleophilic addition onto the corresponding 3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-toluene-p-sulfonyloxyethyl)pyrazole. Two monosubstituted carboranyl pyrazoles (L2 and L3) and one disubstituted carboranyl pyrazole (L4) were synthesized and fully characterized. All new compounds, and the corresponding monosubstituted phenylderivative (L1) behave as N-type ligands upon coordination with CuI to afford different polynuclear Cu(I) compounds 1–4. Compounds 1–4 were fully characterized and their molecular structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. It is noteworthy that whereas the pyrazolylphenyl ligand L1, without o-carborane, provides a 1D coordination polymer (1), ligands containing carborane, L2–L3, affords 0D coordination compounds 2 and 3, and disubstituted carboranyl pyrazole ligand L4 gives rise to a 3D coordination polymer.
The photoluminescence behaviour of compounds 1–4 has been investigated in the solid state and by TDDFT calculations for molecular compounds 2 and 3. Complex 2 exhibits blue emission with a maximum at 483 nm and a high fluorescence quantum yield of 66.5%. According to TDDFT calculations the emission occurs from LUMO to HOMO−1 and HOMO−2 and deexcitation could be described as cluster-centred excited state of d–s transition in origin. This result contradicts previous studies of scarce tri-coordinated rhombohedral Cu(I) clusters, where it was assumed the origin of their emissions is (X + M)LCT in nature by analogy with tetra-coordinated rhombohedral Cu(I) clusters. Complex 3 exhibits very weak emission (ΦF of 5%) in the green region with a maximum at 517 nm, which according to TDDFT is through a 3CC state. Calculations also show that, upon excitation, 3 suffers a notable distortion resulting in the total cleavage of the Cu4I4 framework. This cleavage could be the cause of the relatively large Stokes shift observed for 3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such behaviour is observed for this type of octahedral compounds. Additionally, the 1D polymer 1 exhibits weak fluorescence emission in the orange range with a maximum at 609 nm and a remarkable Stokes shift, whereas the 3D polymer 4 exhibits a similar emission to compound 2, with a moderate quantum yield (ΦF of 13.7%).
Sustainable energy conversion & storage systems
Tuning the architectures and luminescence properties of Cu(I) compounds of phenyl and carboranyl pyrazoles: the impact of 2D versus 3D aromatic moieties in the ligand backbone
Joan Soldevila-Sanmartín, Eliseo Ruiz, Duane Choquesillo-Lazarte, Mark E. Light, Clara Viñas, Francesc Teixidor, Rosario Núñez, * Josefina Pons and José G. Planas *
Ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles offer new opportunities to engineer light–matter interactions through the hybridization of Rayleigh anomalies and localized surface plasmons. The generated surface lattice resonances exhibit much higher quality factors compared to those observed in isolated metal nanostructures. Template-induced colloidal self-assembly has already shown a great potential for the scalable fabrication of 2D plasmonic meta-molecule arrays, but the experimental challenge of controlling optical losses within the repeating units has so far prevented this approach to compete with more standard fabrication methods in the production of high-quality factor resonances.
Electrodeposited iridium oxide (K1.7IrO0.8 (OH)2.2 × 1.8 H2O; also called IrOx) is among the best substrates for neural growth, decreasing impedance and stimulating cell growth, when used as a connected electrode. Without direct contact, it has been proven to stimulate neurons through a bipolar mechanism related to the conducting character of the material in the presence of remote electric fields.
Lattice plasmons, i.e., diffractively coupled localized surface plasmon resonances, occur in long-range ordered plasmonic nanostructures such as 1D and 2D periodic lattices. Such far-field coupled resonances can be employed for ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), provided they are spectrally matched to the excitation wavelength.
Second sound is known as the thermal transport regime where heat is carried by temperature waves. Its experimental observation was previously restricted to a small number of materials, usually in rather narrow temperature windows. We show that it is possible to overcome these limitations by driving the system with a rapidly varying temperature field. High-frequency second sound is demonstrated in bulk natural Ge between 7 K and room temperature by studying the phase lag of the thermal response under a harmonic high-frequency external thermal excitation and addressing the relaxation time and the propagation velocity of the heat waves. These results provide a route to investigate the potential of wave-like heat transport in almost any material, opening opportunities to control heat through its oscillatory nature.
The discovery of novel high-performing materials such as non-fullerene acceptors and low band gap donor polymers underlines the steady increase of record efficiencies in organic solar cells witnessed during the past years. Nowadays, the resulting catalogue of organic photovoltaic materials is becoming unaffordably vast to be evaluated following classical experimentation methodologies: their requirements in terms of human workforce time and resources are prohibitively high, which slows momentum to the evolution of the organic photovoltaic technology.