The discovery of novel high-performing materials such as non-fullerene acceptors and low band gap donor polymers underlines the steady increase of record efficiencies in organic solar cells witnessed during the past years. Nowadays, the resulting catalogue of organic photovoltaic materials is becoming unaffordably vast to be evaluated following classical experimentation methodologies: their requirements in terms of human workforce time and resources are prohibitively high, which slows momentum to the evolution of the organic photovoltaic technology.
As a result, high-throughput experimental and computational methodologies are fostered to leverage their inherently high exploratory paces and accelerate novel materials discovery. In this review, we present some of the computational (pre)screening approaches performed prior to experimentation to select the most promising molecular candidates from the available materials libraries or, alternatively, generate molecules beyond human intuition. Then, we outline the main high-throuhgput experimental screening and characterization approaches with application in organic solar cells, namely those based on lateral parametric gradients (measuring-intensive) and on automated device prototyping (fabrication-intensive). In both cases, experimental datasets are generated at unbeatable paces, which notably enhance big data readiness. Herein, machine-learning algorithms find a rewarding application niche to retrieve quantitative structure–activity relationships and extract molecular design rationale, which are expected to keep the material's discovery pace up in organic photovoltaics.
Sustainable energy conversion & storage systems
Accelerating organic solar cell material's discovery: high-throughput screening and big data
Xabier Rodríguez-Martínez, Enrique Pascual-San-José and Mariano Campoy-Quiles
Second sound is known as the thermal transport regime where heat is carried by temperature waves. Its experimental observation was previously restricted to a small number of materials, usually in rather narrow temperature windows. We show that it is possible to overcome these limitations by driving the system with a rapidly varying temperature field. High-frequency second sound is demonstrated in bulk natural Ge between 7 K and room temperature by studying the phase lag of the thermal response under a harmonic high-frequency external thermal excitation and addressing the relaxation time and the propagation velocity of the heat waves. These results provide a route to investigate the potential of wave-like heat transport in almost any material, opening opportunities to control heat through its oscillatory nature.
Incorporation of one or two o-carborane moieties at the backbone of the pyrazole ring was achieved by lithiation and nucleophilic addition onto the corresponding 3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-toluene-p-sulfonyloxyethyl)pyrazole. Two monosubstituted carboranyl pyrazoles (L2 and L3) and one disubstituted carboranyl pyrazole (L4) were synthesized and fully characterized. All new compounds, and the corresponding monosubstituted phenylderivative (L1) behave as N-type ligands upon coordination with CuI to afford different polynuclear Cu(I) compounds 1–4. Compounds 1–4 were fully characterized and their molecular structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. It is noteworthy that whereas the pyrazolylphenyl ligand L1, without o-carborane, provides a 1D coordination polymer (1), ligands containing carborane, L2–L3, affords 0D coordination compounds 2 and 3, and disubstituted carboranyl pyrazole ligand L4 gives rise to a 3D coordination polymer.
Major research efforts are being carried out for the technological advancement to an energetically sustainable society. However, for the full commercial integration of electrochemical energy storage devices, not only materials with higher performance should be designed and manufactured but also more competitive production techniques need to be developed.
Recently synthesized hexagonal group IV materials are a promising platform to realize efficient light emission that is closely integrated with electronics. A high crystal quality is essential to assess the intrinsic electronic and optical properties of these materials unaffected by structural defects. Here, we identify a previously unknown partial planar defect in materials with a type I3 basal stacking fault and investigate its structural and electronic properties.
The advanced materials industry is one of the leading technology sectors worldwide. The development of such materials is at the core of the technological innovations and has been possible in the last century thanks to the transition from “observational” science to “control” science.